ibn khaldun and education

When a relative suffers an injustice or is attacked one feels humiliated and leaps to his or her defence in the same natural reflex that causes one to reciprocate aggression against oneself. 1253-54; Fr. Learning itself is seen by Ibn Khaldun as the acquisition of a ‘habitus’ (malaka). The aspects of education that we would today classify under the reproduction of values are scattered throughout those chapters of the Muqaddima devoted to social organization and dynamics, power, and rural and urban ways of life. He was a keen observer of the relationship between education and society and saw education as having multiple objectives. Figure 10: Frontispice of the English translation from Arabic of the Muqaddima of Ibn Khaldun in 3 volumes by the Yale University Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations Dr. Franz Rosenthal (1914-2003): The Muqaddimah : an introduction to history (New York: Pantheon Books, 1958). 359 of the world history of Ibn Khaldun: Kitab al-‘Ibar wa-diwan al-mubtada’ wa-al-khabar fi ayyam al-‘Arab wa-al-‘Ajam wa-al-Barbar. Although ibn Khaldun strongly believed in God, he never mentioned any celestial aim for history, or any divine end at which history would come to stop. tr. Tibawi, A. L., Philosophy of Muslim Education. [16] Ibid., II, p. 888 ff. Walī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan Ibn Khaldūn. Author of An Arab Philosophy of History and others. Ibn Khaldun The easiest method of acquiring the habit of scholarship is through acquiring the ability to express oneself clearly in discussing and disputing scholarly problems. the network of teachers, across space and time, who guarantee the quality of the knowledge transmitted. Figure 5: Front cover of the most recent edition of the Arabic text of Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddima, edited by Abdessalam al-Shaddadi. 417-19. All quotations from the Muqaddima given in the present essay were translated from Arabic to French by the author. At the age of 20, he was given a post at the court of Tunis and later became secretary to … ; Fr. [36] Ibid., III, pp. tr., II, pp. Introduction The great thinker Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis, 1332 AD and died in Cairo, 1406 AD. All Rights Reserved. 1025-26; Fr. This stage is limited to giving an overall view of the subject and emphasizing its main points. He approves, at least in theory, of the reforms proposed by Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, whereby the child would first be taught language and the rules of calculation, but he finds that such ideas clash with habits too deeply ingrained to allow those ideas to be implemented [19], thereby confirming one of the structural features of the Islamic education system, namely that of the basically religious nature of the instruction given to children and of the discontinuity between that instruction and the training of scholars. Civilization is for him an urban phenomenon to be realized only by local concentration and cooperation of men united under a strong dynastic rule. With the progress of civilization, science became professionalized, organizing itself according to principles and rules, making use of a specialized methodology and terminology; it was practised as a trade. II, p. 878-80; Engl. There is practical knowledge, the product of ‘the discerning intelligence’, which allows us to act in the world in a controlled fashion; then ‘a knowledge of what we must or must not do and of what is good or evil’, which we acquire through our ‘empirical intelligence’ and which guides us in our relations with our fellows; and, lastly, theoretical knowledge of everything that exists in the world, which we conquer by our ‘speculative intelligence’. tr., pp. The religious and intellectual offices, such as those of the judge, the mufti or the teacher, are placed on the same level as the other arts considered as ‘means of existence’. What today we understand by the term ‘education'—the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level of values and secondly at that of knowledge and know-how—is found in the Muqaddima only in a scattered and incomplete fashion. tr., II, p. 418. 510-11; Fr. Ibn Khaldun barely mentions such places as colleges (madrasas) or convents (khanqas, rubut), which he considers only in the role of material assistance to students and teachers (board and lodging) [43]. Habitus are like gradually formed ‘colours’ of the soul. They take shape when a person is still in his or her ‘state of natural simplicity’. Ibn Khaldun understood society as cyclical; all institutions dovetailed and influenced one another. Ibn Khaldun thinks that the soul has but fairly limited receptivity (isti’dad). [30] Ibid., III, p. 1019; Fr. [10] A profile of al-Ghazali is included in this series of ‘100 Thinkers on Education’. The body composed of scholars and the literati was open, non-centralized, non-hereditary, non-exclusive, with a fluid organization that implied no formal hierarchy [3], thus giving rise to a relatively broad education and teaching system that in many ways prefigured our modern systems [4]. The essential task of the religious institution is to lead the individual towards such a realization. Such figures as that of the literate man (adib), the pious man, the fakir or dervish, and that of the burgher or governor consorting with the learned, so typical of Muslim society, owed a great deal to this system of general instruction based on such institutions as the mosque or the zaouia, and carried forward by such people as the sermon-writer (khatib, wâ’iz), the poet, the religious reformer or the saint, and by a vast literature of popularizations made up of literary anthologies, encyclopaedias, local or general histories, biographical dictionaries, pious works, mystical treatises, etc. His family’s high rank enabled Ibn Khaldun to study with the best teachers in Maghreb. [35] Ibid., III, p. 1019; Fr. The individual soul fulfils itself in and through knowledge. Qurayshi, M.A., The Educational Ideas of Ibn Khaldun. He fails here to disengage himself from a general attitude we find in philosophers, religious thinkers and moralists, one that might be called ‘edifying’. Faithful to the general position he takes in the Muqaddima, that of a ‘science of human society’ (ilm al-ijtima’ al-insani), Ibn Khaldun approaches education neither as a philosopher, a religious thinker, a moralist nor as a jurist—the four approaches adopted by Muslim thinkers who considered the phenomenon of education—but as a sociologist and historian. Once the soul acquires a given aptitude it loses its primary simplicity, its readiness weakens and its capacity to assimilate a second aptitude diminishes. As can be seen, without stating the matter explicitly or systematically, Ibn Khaldun deals with all aspects of the reproduction of values in Muslim society. Figure 2: In 2006, during an exhibition commemorating Ibn Khaldun and taking place on the 600th anniversary of his death, the façade of Pedro I’s Palace in Sevilla, Spain, was illuminated with projections of images that recall the life and culture of the historian’s times. tr., III, p. 965 ff. (Source). II, pp. Ibn Khaldun’s pedagogical conception is based on the central concept of the habitus, mentioned earlier in connection with the learning of the arts. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. Independently of this education of children and without any structural connection between the two, there was also vocational teaching to prepare the learned for various professions. They have been codified down to the smallest details, as can be seen in al-Mawardi and al-Ghazali, forming a part of that broad, permanent moral and religious mechanism for human education referred to above. The following text was originally published as: “Ibn Khaldun (A.D. 1332-1406/A.H. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. 1237-40; Fr. At the same time, he reveals deeper values, connected with the very functioning of society, whose reproduction occurs independently of individual wills. Biography Arab Scholar Medieval era Name Ibn Khaldun [Abū Zayd ‘Abdu r-Raḥman bin Muḥammad bin Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī] Birth 27 May, 1332/732 AH Death 19 March, 1406/808 AH School / Tradition Ash'ari [It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic theology, separating its development radically from that of theology in the Christian world.] tr., II, p. 426. It is to be found at the deepest level of a sort of instinct of preservation. 1249-53; Fr. Works about Ibn Khaldun, education and Islam. During the preceding centuries sustained efforts had been made to devise adequate didactic forms: syntheses, treatises, précis and commentaries. (Casablanca, 2005). He was sometimes in prison. In Ibn Khaldun’s theory of society the development of the arts (i.e. Among townsmen, however, this virtue is nearly absent since they are brought up in a state of dependence, sheltered behind their walls and protected by their militia and their governors; they are used to peace and comfort. He received a traditional education that was typical of his family’s rank and status. Moreover, he points out, observation shows us that ‘it is rare to find a person skilled in one art who is then capable of excelling in another and to the same degree’ [33]. He understands the habitus as something the soul can acquire only through the senses, as opposed to another type of knowledge proper to the prophets and mystics, which can be obtained only through the contemplation by the soul of its own essence. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. tr., III, pp. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. He says it is a serious error to begin by the most abstruse problems, as do many teachers who take no account of the student’s state of preparation. the trades, in the language of the period) and the sciences corresponds at the human level to the perfection of the spiritual nature and at the social level to the final stage of the gradual transition of society from the rural order to the urban order. One of the functions of thought is to ‘allow people to acquire, through their dealings with their fellows, knowledge of what they must do and what they must not do, of what is good and what is evil’ [13]. tr., II, pp. Please, subscribe or login to access full text content. Ibn Khaldun, therefore, urged the historian to become erudite, accurate in observation and skilled in comparing text with subtext in order to be capable of effective criticism and clarification. ‎هي شركه متخصصه في مجال الدراسه في تركيا وتامين القبولات الجامعية في الجامعات الخاصه والحكومية‎ They see to their own defence, bearing arms and keeping themselves on the alert at all times. In order to master any discipline and fully possess it, he says, it is necessary to acquire ‘a habitus that allows the principles and rules to be grasped, problems to be fully understood and secondary questions to be drawn from principles’ [35]. Yet no clear awareness of a unified system of education as a fundamental component of the social system bringing together all aspects of the replication of individuals and groups had come into being. The Educational Thought of Ibn Khaldun. We then gradually gain ‘form’ ‘thanks to the knowledge we acquire through our organs’. Both his parents died when the Black Death struck Tunis in 1349. tr., pp. The various arts, presented in relation to ‘the means of existence’, are classed according to their uses and their social importance before more systematic exposés are made on the main ones. The education system in Muslim societies, 9.1. There was, therefore, a pedagogical dimension to the classification of sciences. We shall return to this important concept later. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Constraint and oppression break the character, sap energy and in the end destroy their subjects’ capacity for realizing ‘their destiny and their full humanity’ [34]. 1211-14; Engl. tr., pp. Sourdel, D.; Makdisi, G., (eds.). Muslim Heritage:Send us your e-mail address to be informed about our work. All Rights Reserved. . Logic is nothing more than a description of the act of thinking and in most cases follows it’ [38]. These are theoretically only means to be placed at the service of the fundamental sciences that are sought for their own sakes. Ibn Khaldun often compares it to a dye that lasts until the cloth to which it has been applied is destroyed. He considered the permanent conflict between primitive Bedouin and highly developed urban society as a crucial factor in history. tr., pp. In addition, their spirits are weakened and their courage annihilated by the weight of the constraints imposed on them by ‘governmental and educational laws’ [15]. tr., pp. Education as Peacebuilding – Ibn Khaldun and Gülen Contemporary scholars of peacebuilding have elaborated on certain elements that are essential for making peace in any part of the world. tr., II, p. 878; Engl. It is within this educational setting that the madrasa (college), the model of the medieval university in France and Italy and of the English ‘college’ [6] — which was later to give rise to the modern university—came into being. At another level, al-Mawardi [9] proposed an education programme reconciling worldly and religious interests, and al-Ghazali [10], in his celebrated Hiyal’ alum al-din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences], formulated a theoretical basis and devised a practical method for attaining the religious ideal of the good Muslim. [32] Ibid., III, p. 1249; Fr. 935, 961; Fr. [4] Cf. 430, 435. Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) was one of the most remarkable Muslim scholars of the pre-modern period. 43 likes. The classification of knowledge in the classical Islamic tradition functioned as a guide to the range of sciences in existence at the time and the relationship between them. , and if you can't find the answer there, please Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1984. Then the sciences, categorized as the rational—’those that people can apprehend by virtue of the very nature of thought ‘ [26] —and the traditional— ‘those founded upon authority’ [27] —are described as to their subjects, their methods, their results and their historical development. Figure 4: Autograph of Ibn Khaldun (upper left corner) on a manuscript of his Muqaddima. [19] Ibid., III, pp. When Ibn Khaldun attempts to trace out a history of education, he concentrates on the sanad, i.e. On the question of the content of science teaching, Ibn Khaldun limits himself to a few remarks inspired by the actual state of education in his time. 292-94. Ibn Khaldun’s own classification, his distinction between the intellectual and transmitted sciences, and the strength and weaknesses of his scheme, are discussed. Be the first to rate this post. Technique, though understood as something at once practical and intellectual (amr ‘amali fikri), is reduced to a skill that may be learned only by observation and imitation (naql al-mu’ayana). tr). Accordingly, the choice of content in the earliest instruction is of decisive importance. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. General concepts such as ta’dib (educate) or ta’lim (instruct) concerned individuals and comprised acts or relations involving person-to-person relationships. 732-808)” [2], by Abdesselam Cheddadi, in Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. tr., pp. [23] Ibid., II, pp. In education, Ibn Khaldoon was a pioneer when he remarked that suppression and use of force are enemies to learning, and that they lead to laziness, lying and hypocrisy. Ibn khaldun's life may be divided into three parts, the first of which (20 years) was occupied by his childhood and education, the second (23 years) by the continuation of his studies and by political adventures, and the third (31 years) by his life as a scholar, teacher and magistrate. This Website MuslimHeritage.com is owned by FSTC Ltd and managed by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation, UK (FSTCUK), a British charity number 1158509. He defines it as ‘a stable quality resulting from a repeated action until its form has taken final shape’ [25]. Ibn Khaldun lays great emphasis on the principle of the progressive approach. His family's high rank enabled Ibn Khaldun to study with prominent teachers in Maghreb. date: 05 December 2020. His views on education and the deep psychological insight in the educational process and development of human mind and body tagged him as a great educator too. Figure 9: Front cover of An Arab Philosophy of History: Selections from the Prolegomena of Ibn Khaldun of Tunis by Charles Issawi (translator) (Darwin Press, 1987). [1] Abdesselam Cheddadi (Morocco) was professor in the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University Muhammad V, Rabat. Ibn Khaldun's Understanding of Civilizations and the Dilemmas of Islam and the West Today By Ahmed, Akbar The Middle East Journal, Vol. So too are his views on learning capacity, memorization, curriculum, strict teachers, and the breadth and depth of education. He received a classical Islamic education, studying the Qur’an, which he memorized by heart, Arabic linguistics; the basis for understanding the Qur’an, hadith, sharia (law) and fiqh (jurisprudence). On the other hand, the aspects involving training, knowledge and knowhow are brought together in the two successive chapters dealing with the arts and sciences. He uses this concept, which for philosophers [24] had an essentially moral and intellectual meaning, very widely to cover a vast field going from language to faith, the arts and the sciences. His books have been translated into many languages, both in the East and the West, and have inspired subsequent development of these sciences. Ibn Khaldūn - Ibn Khaldūn - The Muqaddimah: Ibn Khaldūn’s philosophy of history: In 1375, craving solitude from the exhausting business of politics, Ibn Khaldūn took the most momentous step of his life: he sought refuge with the tribe of Awlād ʿArīf, who lodged him and his family in the safety of a castle, Qalʿat ibn Salāmah, near what is now the town of Frenda, Algeria. His thoughts are all self-created. Ibn Khaldun considers that the process must take place in three progressive stages, whose object and means he is careful to explain [36]. 817-19; Engl, tr., II, pp. It transmits itself spontaneously from one generation to the next and needs to be neither learned nor taught. The third stage is that of consolidation and mastery. 424-426. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis on Ramadan 1, 732 (May 27, 1332). It may even be said that this concept is the underlying value in tribal society, as it is the source of all forms of cohesion in a society organized according to an interlocking principle. Such a practice is most harmful, as the student tires rapidly and becomes discouraged. Thus, philology and arithmetic should serve the religious sciences, while logic and philosophy should be similarly available to theology. 257-61. In his analysis of the methods practised in the various regions of the Muslim world he stresses the ‘total’ linguistic ‘deficiency’ to which precocious Koranic instruction leads, particularly when it is unique and exclusive, as it was in the North Africa. In agreement with his contemporaries, he judges this development to have reached its apogee and its term [39]. Teachers, he suggests, should limit themselves to teaching their students the subject-matter of their own schools. 246-51; Engl. 9.3. The gulf between the rural and urban worlds is perceived as a natural consequence of the passage from the ‘necessary’ to the ‘superfluous’, from the ‘simple’ to the ‘complex’. He learned first at the hands of his father who was a scholarly person who was not involved in tr., II, p. 301. [24] See Avicenna, for example, in Shifa’. The grandfather of the Banu Khaldun was Othman ibn Bakr ibn Khalid, also called Khaldun. Imitation is held by Ibn Khaldun to be a general phenomenon: the dominated always imitate those who dominate them. Berque, J., Ville et université: aperçu sur l’histoire de l’Ecole de Fès [Town and University: a Glimpse on the History of the Fes School]. More important, Ibn Khaldun makes no use of a general concept of education. Gilbert, The Ulama of Medieval Damascus and the International World of Islamic Scholarship, Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, 1977. Cohen, The Economic Background and Secular Occupations of Muslim Jurisprudents and Traditionists in the Classical Period of Islam (until the Middle of the Eleventh Century), J.E.S.H.O., January 1970, pp. Now the subject must be looked at from every angle and generalizations transcended. Buhs, H., The Educational System of the Muslims in the Middle Ages. The learning of language is dealt with separately. How and in what form should the enormous accumulated corpus be transmitted? E-mail Citation » A collection of papers focusing on the reception of Ibn Khaldun’s work in premodern and modern Muslim lands. [38] Ibid., III, p. 1248; Engl. But Ibn Khaldun admits that the relations that people are forced to maintain between themselves out of vital necessity are orderly and obey rules and laws. [41] Ibid., III, pp. What today we understand by the term ‘education’—the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level of values and secondly at that of knowledge and know-how—is found in the Muqaddima only in a scattered and incomplete fashion, in an order and pattern whose meaning escapes us at first sight. Abu Zayd 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Khaldun came from an illustrious family and enjoyed an excellent education in his youth. 805-07; Engl. tr., II, p. 426. tr., III, pp. 334-35. Thus, in Islamic thought education was perceived as a matter that, during infancy, devolved upon the family, especially the father, whereas in adulthood it became the individual’s own responsibility. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. The foundations of asabiyya are what Ibn Khaldun calls nura (kinship), the feeling of affection for and attachment to close relatives and all who are of the same blood [12]. To troubleshoot, please check our Lastly, it is important to note that Ibn Khaldun brings up twice, although both times in an incidental manner, the matter of the inculcation of religious values. Ibn Khaldun wondered how the average student could be required to assimilate it all. 261 leaves; 26.5 x 17.5 cm, written in various hands, copied in 1140 H/1728 CE. Explanations must be kept simple and general and allow for the student’s capacity for understanding and assimilating. 300-05. tr., II, pp. He denounces three abuses: the overload of work imposed on students; the excessive importance given to the ‘instrumental sciences’; and the use of précis. Ibn Khaldun calls it a natural tendency that has always existed in human beings. Ibn Khaldun's fame rests on his Muqaddima, in which he set forth the earliest general theory of the nature of civilization and the conditions for its development, intending it as a tool for understanding and writing history. An overly severe attitude on the part of the teacher leads to the most harmful consequences, particularly for young children. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013, DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198090458.001.0001, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). Yet, while his approach faithfully reflects the fundamental structural features of the Islamic education system (separation of the rural world from the urban world, discontinuity between the training of the person and training for a trade, and the cowardly and badly structured character of educational institutions), it does not apprehend the education system as forming a whole. E. Gellner, Nations and nationalism, Oxford, Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1983, pp. [34] Ibid. And, at the same time, it was unified by the common adherence to Islam, identification with which was tangibly represented by the universal Koranic teaching that was virtually obligatory for all. (Source). The greater part of scientific activity must be devoted to the task of organizing the various fields of knowledge into individualized subjects capable of being transmitted. In Islamic thought, education, which here takes in religion and morals, is a process that ends at no determined stage or age but lasts an entire lifetime, as expressed in the saying attributed to the Prophet Muhammad: ‘Learn science from the cradle to the grave’. tr., II, p. 889; Engl. According to him, the real difference between mankind and other beings is the power of thought. 1008-09; Fr. Though perfectible, the sciences are conceived as constituting a closed universe, or at least one tending towards a certain completion. [40] Ibid., III, p. 1242; Fr. [25] Muqaddima, II, p. 935; Fr. Moreover, when examining the matter of faith and works in the chapter he devotes to theology, Ibn Khaldun gives a personal interpretation of it based on his theory of habitus (malaka, see ‘Learning the Arts’ below). 936-39; Fr. Discover the golden age of Muslim civilisation. Faced with such a situation, it is understandable that he should speak out against the propensity of his age to dwell on the study of the sciences described as ‘auxiliary’ or ‘instrumental’—such as grammar, logic and legal principles. However, upon closer view we discover that this ambiguity and these lacunae in fact reflect the state of the Muslim system of education, and we are forced to admit that, in this field as in many others connected with the knowledge of Muslim society, Khaldun's contribution is the most complete at our disposal. A Symposium Organized by School of Law Discusses the Future of Mediation Announcement About Education Process For 2020-2021 Fall Semester Trilingualism at IHU from the Students’ Perspective Ibn Haldun University… His ideas have reflected their importance on the history of universal thought as much as within the Islamic realm. Arab muslim historian, philosopher, and statesman. Education, according to Ibn- Khaldun, is seen as a social process in terms of its overall essence, content, function and objectives to the extent that this process cannot be separated from the society especially when it is the means to express individual’ needs on one … His family’s political prominence significantly contributed to his wide range of knowledge. tr., pp. III, p. 39 ff. tr., pp. Rural society, being satisfied with the necessary, cultivates only the simplest of the arts, such as agriculture and weaving; it has no knowledge of writing and the sciences, and though at times some of its members may take an interest in such matters they can never reach perfection [21]. These become increasingly difficult to satisfy, particularly when dynasties decline and taxes become heavier. For one thing, it cannot receive several ‘dyes’ at a time; then, when it has taken on one of these, its capacity to receive others gradually diminishes [31]. 1226-29; Engl. [8] See Kitab tahdhib al-akhlaq [The Book of Moral Education]. Moreover, the history of the sciences is essentially epitomized for him in that of the basic works that have been composed within each subject, with their main commentaries and abstracts. © UNESCO: International Bureau of Education, 2000. Corrupt morals are virtually inescapable for urban dwellers. Thus indirectly, and several centuries in advance, he confirms one of the invariable structural features of the education system in Muslim societies, namely the precarious nature of its institutions. 887-88; Engl. He was also excellent in mathematics, and at school, he receiv… Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. (Paris: Sindbad, 3rd edition, 1997, 1132 pp.). 7-19. His family were from Andalusia.Born in Tunisia in 1332, Khaldun served the governments of the day in many ways. tr., II, pp. All these educational theories, in line with a tradition that goes back to Graeco-Roman antiquity, are interested in the human being per se, considered in every aspect of his or her being. He received certification (ijazah) for all of those subjects.The mathematician and philosopher Al-Abili of Tlemcen introduced him to mathematics, logic and philosophy, and he studied especially the works of Averroes, Avicenna, Razi a… Works by Ibn Khaldun Moreover, in the field of the arts as well as in that of the sciences, Ibn Khaldun advises strictly against the teaching of more than one subject at a time. They also differ in degree, depending on the quality of teaching and of the models imitated and on the general level of development of the civilization.

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