had the lowest percentage occurrence of 3.12%. Okereke et al.21 reported that A. niger, Alternaria species, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were isolated from the spoilt mangoes. Glycaemic response to some commonly eaten fruits in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study reveals the potential of various A spergillus niger isolates from different soil in the production of pectinase. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean) and analysis of variance (p<0.05). The morphologic identification proved useful for some species, such as A. carbonarius and Aspergillus sp UFLA DCA 01, despite not having been totally effective in elucidating species related to A. niger. Fungal food spoilage of supermarkets' displayed fruits. The post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in Nigeria. Among fifteen fungal isolates studied from these five zones Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus was potent for pectinase production next to Aspergillus niger in form of halozone of 0.6 mm. Lewis R.A. CRC Dictionary of Agricultural Sciences. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2002. Soil samples (about 250 g) were collected in 500 ml sterile polythene bags from agricultural field, garbaged area and industrial area. The use of microbial technologies in agriculture is currently expanding quite rapidly with the identification of new bacterial strains, which are more effective in promoting plant growth. This research was carried out to investigate the types of fungal flora associated with the spoilage of fruits at Utako market, Abuja, Nigeria. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2018.08.00377 Table 2 Frequency of Occurrences of the Isolated Fungi Fungal Isolate Number of Occurrences Aspergillus niger 5 Aspergillus fumigatus 5 Aspergillus oryzae 3 Rhizopus oryzae 1 ISOLATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER The sample was isolated from site in Malaysia which at Bukit tinggi, Pahang.This place have a maximum average temperature of about 38°C and a minimum average temperature of 16°C. Fruits contain high levels of sugars and nutrient elements and their low pH values make them particularly desirable to microbial decay. 2). had the least pathogenicity of 20 mm in diameter rotten surface. The morphological characteristics and appearance of the fungal isolates from the rotten fruits used in this study were confirmed and authenticated with the help of mycological atlas of Domsch et al.14. According to this source, fungal toxin contamination of food products can cause acute or chronic intoxication, leads to reduce life expectancy; exacerbate disease conditions in humans leading to 40% loss of economic productivity5. These fruits are usually displayed on benches and in baskets for prospective customers in the open markets until sold, thereby exposing them to further microbial infection beside those associated with fruit surface and those from adjacent infected fruits2,3. and Rhizopus sp. The result also showed that Alternaria sp. (Aspergillus japonicus), C. (Aspergillus flavus), The data for the prevalence of fungal isolates was analyzed using frequency table. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). and Mucor spp. Several studies have also reported that Aspergillus spp. Spoilage micro-organisms can be introduced to the crop on the seed itself, during crop growth in the field, harvesting and post-harvest handling or during storage and distribution loading and offloading7. Thus a new theory on microbial spoilage may be arrived at. Morphological characteristics remain the primary tool for detection and identification of Asper-gillus species. Conclusion: It was concluded that, seven fungal species were found to be responsible for the deterioration of fruits in Utako market. After sterilization, the media were aseptically dispensed in 20 mL aliquots sterile Petri dishes and were allowed to set on the flat then aseptically dispensed into sterile Petri dishes. The isolation was directly from the agricultural soils and decaying woods materials. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190236. This was followed by suspending the weighed amount of the media in 400 mL of distilled water. and Rhizopus spp. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species) (10%), Fusarium solani (8%), and Aspergillus flavus (5%). However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34). Statistical analysis: The data obtained was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance with least significant difference to separate the means and the significant level was set at p<0.05. 2020 Jun 25;27:e00496. Isolation of fungi from spoilt fruits: Isolation of the mycological flora followed the method of Dashwood et al.9 and Balali et al.10. The result of this study revealed the presence of 7 different fungal species from deteriorated fruits obtained from Utako market. Results: Generally, spoiling microbes are considered toxigenic or pathogenic as a lot of toxigenic fungi have been isolated from spoilt fruits. Acta Hortic. 2.2. 2019 Nov 30;24(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s12199-019-0825-5. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively.
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